1. Rhythm: the time between notes (shorter or longer)

2. Pulse: the grouping of notes into beats and measures 

3. Beats:

  • Units of rhythmic time
  • The gestures marking time, which are given by a conductor
  • The places in a measure where those gestures would occur
  • Downbeat: the first beat of a measure
  • Upbeat: the beat just before a downbeat
  • Pickups: any number of notes leading to a downbeat 

4. Bar/measure: a segment of time defined by a given number of beats

5. Meter: the pattern of beats by which measures are organized

6. Counts: a way of tracking the passing of time units in each measure as they occur; count speed depends on the tempo of a piece 

7. Syncopation: offbeat accents